Study Questions from

Foundations of Grace – 1400 BC - AD 100

A Long Line of Godly Men

By Steven J. Lawson   

for Men's Discipleship and Home Fellowship Groups

Chapter One - A Long Line of Godly Men

Study Questions (Page 27, 2006 Edition; Page 21, 2016 Edition)

  1. What central truth has united a long line of godly men through the centuries? Why this truth?
  2. What positive effect does the doctrine of the sovereignty of God have upon those who embrace it?
  3.  What is primary in God’s sovereignty in man’s salvation?  Why is this so?
  4.  Describe the difference between God’s intrinsic glory and His ascribed glory.  Which affects the other?  Explain why.
  5.  How do the doctrines of grace uniquely manifest God’s glory?  Compare this manifestation with that of the chief doctrines of Arminianism.  Which system gives greater glory to God?
  6.  Briefly summarize the five major headings of the doctrines of grace.  How do they proceed in thought, from one to the next?
  7.  How does equivocation on any one of the five doctrines of grace jeopardize the other four?  Explain why this is so.
  8.  Can you give a brief survey of church history, highlighting the most significant men who held to the doctrines of grace?   

Chapter Two - Where the Long Line Begins

Study Questions (Page 45, 2006 Edition; Page 38, 2016 Edition)

  1. Describe the relationship of Moses to the Pentateuch, the first five books of the Bible.  At what stage of life was Moses when he wrote these books?  Where was he?
  2. Explain the sovereignty of God in Genesis 1.  What specific aspects of divine authority were displayed on each day of Creation?
  3. Elaborate on the first sin of Adam and Eve.  How did it affect them?  How did it affect the human race?
  4. Discuss the doctrine of election as it relates to the lives of Abraham, Jacob and Esau.   What effect did it have upon their salvation?
  5. What is the protoevangelium?  Explain the prophecy and foreshadowing of the atonement in God’s judgment on Adam and Eve in the garden of Eden.  Do the same for the story of Cain and Abel.
  6. Was God or Adam the true seeker in the garden?  Has anything changed since then?
  7. How did Enoch and Noah represent the truth of the preserving grace of God?
  8. What are some of the blessings of understanding and believing the truth of the eternal security of believers?  How should this truth impact our lives?

Chapter Three - Sovereign Grace in the Wilderness

Study Questions (Page 73, 2006 Edition; Page 63, 2016 Edition)

  1. Explain the sovereignty of God in the life and ministry of Moses.  Over what spheres of life and creation does divine sovereignty extend?  Does this include salvation?
  2. Describe the doctrine of election as it is expressed in Exodus 33:19.  Is it a harsh or loving doctrine?  Why?
  3. How was the death of Christ prefigured in the Passover?  How did the Passover represent a definite atonement?
  4. What is the doctrine of reprobation?  Was God’s hardening of Pharaoh’s heart just or unfair?  Explain your answer.  Explain the difference between grace and justice.
  5. Describe how the Day of Atonement prefigured the death of Christ.  What was the scapegoat?
  6. How did the work of the high priest foreshadow a definite atonement?
  7. What evidences of radical depravity are seen in the book of Numbers?  What warning should these evidences sound to unconverted church members?
  8. What aspects of the doctrine of election are presented in Deuteronomy?  How should this truth affect your daily life?            

Chapter Four - Strong Men with a Strong Message

Study Questions (Page 103, 2006 Edition; Page 91, 2016 Edition)

  1.  Is courage needed in order to hold to the doctrines of grace?  Why?
  2. Has identification with the sovereign grace of God ever proved costly for you?  What did it cost you?
  3. Read Joshua 11:20.  Does God ever harden human hearts?  If so, why?
  4. How is God’s sovereignty seen in the book of Judges?  Does divine authority extend over unbelievers and demon spirits?  How should this truth affect you?
  5. Explain the depths of the radical depravity of man that are seen in Judges.  Do you see the same evidences in the world today?  In what ways?
  6. Describe the irresistible call of God upon Samuel’s life.  Has such a saving call be extended to you?  How do you know?
  7. Explain the sovereignty of God over the hearts of men in the book of Ezra.  How should this truth comfort us today?
  8. How permanent was the saving faith that God gave to Job?  Was Satan able to cause his faith in God to self-destruct?  What should this say to you about your faith in the midst of spiritual warfare?  Can it implode?   

Chapter Five - Monarchs Bow Before the Sovereign

Study Questions (Page 133, 2006 Edition; Page 120, 2016 Edition)

  1. Why is divine sovereignty a testing doctrine? How does it reveal what is in the hearts of men?
  2. Has the truth of God’s sovereignty had a positive effect upon your life?  A purifying effect?
  3. In the book of Psalms, how are the sovereignty of God and the worship of God interconnected?  How does His supremacy escalate praise?
  4. Using the book of Psalms, detail the various parts of man to which depravity has spread.  How does the extent of human depravity necessitate sovereign grace?
  5. Can a true believer lose his salvation?  In the Psalms, what aspects of salvation are said to be forever?  How should this truth affect your daily Christian life?
  6. According to the book of Proverbs, what are some of the specific areas of life in which God’s sovereignty is seen?  How does the extent of His sovereignty relate to the decision-making of man?
  7. How is the radical depravity of sinners described in Proverbs?  How can this description be helpful in your personal dealings with unconverted people?
  8. How is the view of divine sovereignty in Ecclesiastes helpful in establishing a Biblical worldview?  How should this view help you enjoy life?

Chapter Six - Spokesman of Sovereign Grace

Study Questions (Page 165, 2006 Edition; Page 150, 2016 Edition)

  1. How should the example of the prophets of ancient Israel encourage us today?  In what ways should we follow their example?
  2. Does God ever change His plans?  What does the prophet Isaiah teach concerning God’s planning?  How does this truth relate to your life?
  3. What extremities of the radical depravity of man are described by Isaiah?  How should this teaching affect the way we see the world scene?
  4. What is the relationship between radical depravity and sovereign election?  Why does the former necessitate the latter?  How does Isaiah portray the sovereign election of God?
  5. What is the doctrine of definite atonement?  What does the book of Isaiah contribute to this truth?  How should this doctrine impact your heart?
  6. What is meant by the irresistible call of God in salvation?  How does Isaiah describe it?  How should this truth affect our evangelism?
  7. Explain the doctrine of divine reprobation as it relates to man’s responsibility to believe the gospel.  What should we respond to this hard truth?
  8. How can you be like Isaiah in the unique circumstances in which you live?   

Chapter Seven - Heralds of Divine Regeneration

Study Questions (Page 187, 2006 Edition; Page 171, 2016 Edition)

  1. What is the difference between monergistic and synergistic regeneration? What is God's part in regeneration? What is man's part?
  2. Does faith precede regeneration? Or does regeneration precede faith? Why?
  3. Read Jeremiah 1:5. When did God choose the prophet? How is this a loving truth?
  4. Read Jeremiah 31:31-34. What specific acts does God perform in the regeneration of the spiritually dead soul?
  5. Review Lamentations 3:37-39. Does God cause adverse events? How should this truth comfort your heart?
  6. What picture of human nature does Ezekiel present? How does this picture compare with what you see around you in the world?
  7. Describe the new birth as it is pictured in Ezekiel. What metaphors does the prophet use in detailing the miracle of regeneration? What evidences of this have you seen in your life?
  8. To what extent does Daniel reveal God to be sovereign over kings and nations? How does Daniel's teaching apply to the world scene today?

Chapter Eight - Major Theology from Minor Prophets

Study Questions (Page 217, 2006 Edition; Page 199, 2016 Edition)

  1. Does saving faith originate with man or with God? How should this fact influence our understanding of salvation? Of our own conversions?
  2. What contribution does the book of Hosea make to the doctrine of the radical depravity of the human soul? How did your life before you came to Christ fit this description of inward depravity?
  3. How did the prophet Hosea represent the sovereign grace of God? In what way does this picture relate to every believer's life?
  4. Read Amos 3:2 and consider the word known. How is the doctrine of sovereign election portrayed in this word? What should this mean for you as you consider your salvation?
  5. What evidences of divine providence are seen in the book of Jonah? How should this amazing story cultivate the fear of God in your heart?
  6. How did the revival at Nineveh under the preaching of Jonah exhibit the sovereign grace of God? What hope does this ancient revival give us for the cities in which we live?
  7. In Nahum 1:7, God again is said to "know'' those who trust Him. How does this statement relate to foreknowledge? When did God first know you?
  8. In Malachi 1:2-3, God says that He loved Jacob but hated Esau. Explain this contrast.

Chapter Nine - Christ, the Calvinist

Study Questions (Page 241, 2006 Edition; Page 220, 2016 Edition)

  1. From whom did Jesus Christ receive His doctrine? What does this mean in regards to His teaching on the doctrines of grace? What does this fact require of us?
  2. In Matthew 28:18, Jesus declares that He possesses all authority. Does this sovereignty extend over unbelievers? What does this truth mean for salvation?
  3. How does Christ present the doctrine of radical depravity in Matthew's gospel? How defiled is unsaved man? What about those around you who are without Christ?
  4. Read Matthew 22:14. Does God choose all people to be saved? Many? Or only a few? In light of this teaching, how grateful should you be to be called?
  5. Explain the extent of the atonement provided by Christ. Did Jesus die for the non-elect?
  6. In Matthew 11:25-27, who controls the saving knowledge of the Father? To whom is this divine disclosure given? To whom should you give credit for your salvation? You? Or God?
  7. Compare Matthew 10:22 with Matthew 24:22, 24, 31. How long will the elect retain their salvation?
  8. Mark 7:21-23 plumbs the depths of the depravity of the human heart. How should this teaching of Jesus affect your devotion to God?

Chapter Ten - The Mount Everest of Theology

Study Questions (Page 271, 2006 Edition; Page 248, 2016 Edition)

  1. In John's gospel, Christ's teaching on the radical depravity of man is vast. What are some of the metaphors our Lord used in establishing this truth?
  2. Which of these metaphors is most devastating for the claim that man has a free will? What choices can a dead man make?
  3. In John 6:37, who are those "that the Father gives" to Christ? Does the Father give them to Him before or after salvation? How certain is it that they will come to Christ?
  4. According to John 10:1-5, who are the sheep? How did they become Christ's sheep?
  5. Does the word world, as used in the gospel of John, always mean "all people without exception"? What are some of the various uses of world in John's gospel? How is all used in John's gospel?
  6. What is the picture of the new birth in John 3 intended to teach about sovereign grace? What part did you play in your physical birth? Your spiritual birth?
  7. Review John 6:37, 44. Is it possible for those previously given to Christ to resist the drawing of God?
  8. Can a lost sinner come to Christ by his own initiative?

Chapter Eleven - How Firm a Foundation

Study Questions (Page 307, 2006 Edition; Page 282, 2016 Edition)

  1. How important to the church is a firm foundation on the doctrines of grace? To your individual Christian life? Why are these truths so vitally important?
  2. In Acts 2:23, what do the words definite plan mean? What does foreknowledge mean? How are these two truths interrelated?
  3. Where does saving faith come from? Where does repentance come from? What do these truths say about free will? How should we pray regarding the salvation of others?
  4. Describe the images of radical depravity mentioned by Peter in his epistles.
  5. Does the word foreknowledge mean foresight or something else? How does this understanding of the word relate to your salvation?
  6. According to 1 Peter, for whom did Christ die? How should this truth affect your love and affection for Christ?
  7. According to 2 Peter 1:1, does faith originate in man or must it be given by God? If given, how grateful should you be for this gift?
  8. What is the meaning of 2 Peter 3:9? How does this teaching relate to the eternal purposes of God? Who are the "you," the "any," and the "all" in this verse?   

Chapter Twelve - By His Grace and For His Glory

Study Questions (Page 341, 2006 Edition; Page 314, 2016 Edition)

  1.  Why are the doctrines of grace so named? How do each of the five main headings preserve the purity of divine grace? How do they give glory to God alone?
  2. In Romans, how does the apostle Paul represent the extent of the inward corruption of sinners? To what depths has radical depravity extended?
  3. In Romans 8:29, why does foreknowledge mean "to love beforehand"? Why does it not refer to divine "foresight" down the proverbial tunnel of time?
  4. Read Romans 9. Who chose whom in matters of salvation? Did man initially choose God or did God previously choose individual sinners to be among His people?
  5. According to Romans 5:5-6, 11, did Christ die for all mankind or for those who are actually reconciled to God? How should this truth affect your view of the cross? Your approach to the Lord's Supper?
  6. Read Romans 8:28-30. What does it mean to be called by God? Can a person who receives such a call ever lose his salvation? How secure should you feel in divine grace?
  7. Read Romans 8:35-39. What possibility does Paul see of believers ever being separated from the love of God in Christ?
  8. Describe the doctrine of divine reprobation as it is laid out in Romans 9. Was it just or unfair for God to hate Esau and to harden Pharaoh's heart? What is fair for sinners?

Chapter Thirteen - Preacher of the Doctrines of Grace

Study Questions (Page 381, 2006 Edition; Page 351, 2016 Edition)

  1. Was Saul of Tarsus saved on the Damascus road by sovereign grace or by his own initiative? How were you saved?
  2. According to 1 Corinthians 2:14, how capable is the unconverted mind of understanding spiritual truth? What effect does this truth have upon our evangelism?
  3. Read 1 Corinthians 1 :26--29. How should you see your conversion in light of these verses? Do you have anything to boast about?
  4. Consider the irresistible call of God as it is described in 1 Corinthians 1:2, 9, 24, 26.  Into what have you been divinely called? Are you fully enjoying this purpose?
  5. According to 2 Corinthians 4:3-4, what is the ability of the unconverted to see the truth of the gospel? What did God have to do in your conversion?
  6. Read 2 Corinthians 5:14-15. For whom did Christ die? Have you died to your selfish pursuits?
  7. Explain the exchange of the cross that Paul teaches in 2 Corinthians 5:21. Were the sins only of believers transferred to Christ? What difference should this make in your daily Christian life?
  8. According to 2 Corinthians 4:6, how powerful is God's saving call? Has this call been issued to you? If so, when? According to 2 Corinthians 5:17, how has your life changed?   

Chapter Fourteen - Before the Foundation of the World

Study Questions (Page 411, 2006 Edition; Page 378, 2016 Edition)

  1.  Where must you begin if you are to think rightly about your salvation? What did God do then?
  2. Ephesians 2:1 states that unsaved people are spiritually dead in sin. What are the implications of this condition for the human will? What moral ability does a dead man have?
  3. According to Ephesians 1:4-5, when did God choose His people? On what did He base this choice? How should this truth impact your personal walk with the Lord? Your worship? Your witness?
  4. Read Colossians 3:12. Why did the apostle Paul make the doctrine of election the basis of his appeal that we should love others?
  5. Explain the extent of the atonement in light of the doctrine of sovereign election. Explain this extent in light of Paul's repeated use of the word us to refer to those for whom Christ died.
  6. Discuss the word chose, with its specific nuances, as it is used in 2 Thessalonians 2:13. When was this divine choice made?
  7. Articulate the difference between Jesus making salvation possible through His death and actually saving. What is the language of Scripture?
  8. Give specific reasons from 1 Thessalonians why believers are eternally secure in Christ.

Chapter Fifteen - The Pillar and Support of the Truth

Study Questions (Page 445, 2006 Edition; Page 408, 2016 Edition)

  1. Many people want to avoid discussing the doctrines of grace. Why do you think this is so? Why should you study them?
  2. What are some of the distinctives of sovereign election that the apostle Paul lays out in 2 Timothy 1:9?
  3. Read 2 Timothy 2:10. How did the doctrine of election affect Paul's evangelism? How should it influence your outreach for Christ?
  4. Explain the word all in 1 Timothy 2:4, 6. How is the word best understood in light of the context?
  5. How should the truth of sovereign election, as taught in 1 Timothy 4:10, affect our presentation of the gospel? Should you be more or less active in sharing your faith in Christ?
  6. To whom did God make the promise mentioned in Titus 1:2? What was the nature of this promise? How secure should you feel as a result of this expressed guarantee? Why?
  7. Define the extent of the atonement based on Titus 2:13-14. Who is "us"? Who is the "people" Christ purchased? How should you value the death of Christ in light of this passage?
  8. In 2 Timothy 2:24-26, what does Paul say is the capacity of the human will? How free is it before salvation? What must God do before a sinner can repent?

Chapter Sixteen - Evangelism and Divine Sovereignty

Study Questions (Page 467, 2006 Edition; Page 430, 2016 Edition)

  1. Explain the relationship between the sovereignty of God in salvation and evangelism. Does the doctrine of election hinder believers' witness for Christ or guarantee its ultimate success?
  2. Read Acts 13:48. Which comes first—believing or being divinely appointed to eternal life? Do more believe than are appointed? Less?
  3. How did God's words in Acts 18:9-10 help the apostle Paul in his evangelistic outreach? What difference should these words make to you, especially in light of opposition to the gospel?
  4. Read Acts 20:28. For whom, according to Paul, did Christ die? Explain why the doctrine of definite atonement makes the church special. Explain how it should influence our love for other believers.
  5. Describe the origin of saving faith in light of Acts 3:16. Explain the source of repentance in light of Acts 5:31 and 11:18. How should this truth affect how you give your testimony? How you pray for lost people?
  6. In Hebrews 2:13, who are "the children God has given me"? Who is the speaker? What does this verse say in regards to the saving purposes of God?
  7. Read Hebrews 9:28. Explain the extent of the atonement in light of the first and second comings of Christ.
  8. The perseverance of the saints is clearly taught in Hebrews 3:14. How does such endurance in the faith demonstrate the genuineness of a believer's faith in Christ?

Chapter Seventeen - Sovereign Regeneration

Study Questions (Page 497, 2006 Edition; Page 458, 2016)

  1. In the order of salvation, which comes first: regeneration or faith? Why?
  2. What effect should the doctrine of election have upon human pride? Discuss the humbling influence it has had upon you.
  3. Read James 1:18. Whose will is active in the new birth? How does this truth give all glory to God?
  4. What are some of the depths of human depravity taught in 1 John? What does this teaching say about your state in sin before coming to Christ?
  5. What are some of the distinguishing marks of the new birth that are mentioned in 1 John? What do these marks say about God's powerful working in regeneration?
  6. Read 1 John 5:11, 13, 20. What is eternal life? How pervasive is this supernatural life when it is received into the spiritually dead human soul?
  7. In Jude 1, what is the effect of being "called" by God and "kept for Jesus Christ"? What encouragement should you draw from this verse while living in this lie-filled world?
  8. According to Jude 24-25, how secure is the salvation of believers? Does the final success of salvation rest upon man or Christ?  How should this truth affect your enjoyment of your salvation?

Chapter Eighteen - Throughout All the Ages to Come

Study Questions (Page 531, 2006 Edition; Page 489, 2016 Edition)

  1. What is the teaching of Scripture, from cover to cover, regarding the doctrines of grace? Does any Biblical author break ranks and teach something contrary?
  2. Read John 1:12-13. How is a person born again? Is it of him or of God? Explain the sovereign work of God as it is described in these verses.
  3. Describe the sovereignty of God as it is presented in the book of Revelation. How is this presentation of divine sovereignty intended to encourage believers? How does it edify you?
  4. What does the persecution of believers say about radical depravity?  What does false religion indicate about the corruption of the human heart?
  5. According to Revelation 13:8 and 17:8, when were the names of the elect written in the Lamb's book of life? Can any names be removed from the book once they are entered?
  6. According to Revelation 5:9, whom did Christ redeem? What is the response of heaven to this redemption? What is your response?
  7. How certain is heaven for believers? Consider Revelation 2-3 as you answer. How is this reality meant to encourage believers in the midst of difficulty and persecution?
  8. In Revelation 13:10 and 14:12, the endurance, or perseverance, of the saints is mentioned. What do these verses say about the pursuit of holiness by the believer in even the most difficult situations?

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